The Ashoka Chakra is a depiction of the Buddhist Dharmachakra(It was extracted from the lower part in the middle of so called Asokan Pillar- It is not proved that it is a Asokan Pillar or Altar of Alexander), represented with 24 spokes. It is so called because it appears on a number of edicts of Ashoka( Major Edict XIII is now not in India and saying Mass Killings of people ), most prominent among which is the Lion Capital of Sarnath ( No body can proved it is of Asoka or Alexander Altar because it has no Buddhist sign of Elephant and of Indian art) which has been adopted as the National Emblem of the Republic of India. Ashoka chakra has 12 pairs of spokes. The most visible use of the Ashoka Chakra today is at the centre of the National flag of the Republic of India (adopted on 22 July 1947 that mean before so called Division of India or Independence), where it is rendered in a Navy-blue color on a White background, by replacing the symbol of Charkha (Spinning wheel- Charkha was representing Gram Swarajya which was the base of Independence) of the pre-independence versions of the flag.
Everybody should see it is injected just before Independence not after independent India922 July-1947).
Our beloved Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, who later became India’s first Vice President, described the flag as follows:
Bhagwa or the saffron colour denotes renunciation or disinterestedness. Our leaders must be indifferent to material gains and dedicate themselves to their work. The white in the centre is light, the path of truth to guide our conduct. The green shows our relation to (the) soil, our relation to the plant life here, on which all other life depends. The “Ashoka Chakra” in the centre of the white is the wheel of the law of dharma. Truth or satya, dharma or virtue ought to be the controlling principle of those who work under this flag. Again, the wheel denotes motion. There is death in stagnation. There is life in movement. India should no more resist change, it must move and go forward. The wheel represents the dynamism of a peaceful change.
Introduction to Indian Constitution(26 Jan 1950 that means after Independence)
The Constitution of India is the world’s lengthiest written constitution with 395 articles and 8 schedules. It contains the good points taken from the constitution’s of many countries in the world. It was passed on 26 Nov 1949 by the ‘The Constituent Assembly’ and is fully applicable since 26 Jan 1950.
The preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the document. The preamble-page, along with other pages of the original Constitution of India, was designed and decorated solely by renowned painter Beohar Rammanohar Sinha of Jabalpur who was at Shantiniketan with acharya Nandalal Bose at that time. Nandalal Bose endorsed Beohar Rammanohar Sinha’s artwork without any alteration whatsoever. As such, the page bears Beohar Rammanohar Sinha’s short signature Ram in Devanagari lower-right corner.
The preamble is not an integral part of the Indian constitution was first decided by the Supreme Court of India in BeruBari case therefore it is not enforceable in a court of law. However, Supreme Court of India has, in the Kesavananda case, recognised that the preamble may be used to interpret ambiguous areas of the constitution where differing interpretations present themselves. In the 1995 case of Union Government Vs LIC of India also the Supreme Court has once again held that Preamble is the integral part of the Constitution.
Now we should comes to the point which area are interpret ambiguous?
1. SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC- (a) Sovereign is saluted, (b)Socialist is debatable due to capitalistic vision, (c)Secular is where? When Asoka injected as national hero it is just like Pakistan using Islam and India using Asokan pattern of Buddhism (why not use Pure Buddha why Asoka) and where is secularism? What about Hindu, Muslim, Sikh, Jain , Christian and other religious minority? (d)Democratic Republic – A monarch injected to National symbol then how one can tell it is democratic republic? It is justify as Fundamental monarchy.
2. Justice- A monarch fundamental vision can not be termed as justice.
3. Liberty- Liberty of thought expression and belief is OK and what about worship? Can every one follow forcefully Asokan Buddhism? Asoka terrorise tribal people for taking Dhamma then tribal should killed if they don’t take Asokan dhamma?
4. Equality- Every Year Asoka Chakra was given to Indian defence personnel for celebrating victory over Kalinga ? Or what is the intention?
5. Fraternity assuring the dignity of Individual and the Unity and integrity of the Nation- How it is justified that Mass Killing of Indians is justified as integrity of the nation?
Then why Asokan History injected by Britisher to Indian history and application to Indian National Flag and used as a National Symbol is to be debated and restructured according to the Preamble of the Constitution.
Making Asoka a Historical Hero of India to be reconsidered and blunder of British forgery is to be rethink and as a scanner presented thus:-
1. Jarasandha of Magadha and Yavana Honeymoon to rule over India whole and Killing of Magadha King:-
It was Mahabharata clearly depict the intention of Magadha King Jarasandha to Rule over India and Prithivi and attack 17 times to Lord Krishna. Jarasandh is Kansa’s father-in-law. On hearing the news of his son in law being killed by Krishna and people of Mathura supporting him, now decides to take revenge with them and starts preparing his army full fledged with the help of his lovely honeymoon friend Kaal Yavana. The story end with defeat of Jarasandha and Kaal Yavana Burnt to ashes by King Muchhukunda of Ikshvaku dynasty as king Rama also belongs to that dynasty. This segment of Mahabharata period is an eye opener for counter argument regarding Nationalistic approach of the false conqueror belongs to Magadha Kingdom.
2. Double face of British History regarding Magadha and India:-
When by writing Indian History flooded with Alexander the Great then the same Principle why not followed to Indian History or Magadha History? If Alexander defeat Puru (It was now debated who defeat whom) and become great for Indian History then the same method of History writing must be applied to India also. When Chandragupta Maurya , founder member of Mauryan empire defeat Selucus then it is too of same sound like Alexander and for Indian context Chandragupta must be great. Then why not? Talking of Mahameghabahana is of High skill and that beyond Chandragupta and Alexander . Mahameghabahana military skill force the Invader Yavanas to go for Jackal’s flee and their religious mask face for plundering India opened to public of India. Matsys Purana also pointed towards future version of Yavana having religious mask face for killing mass people and plundering India and it is also Justified and fit with the tone of XIII Rock Edict of Asoka/Devanampiya, where no Kings name mentioned but killing of common people clearly mentioned in it.
3. An illustrative passage of the Matsya Purana reads thus:-
There will be Yavanas (foreigners) here by reason of religious feeling (dharma) or ambition or plunder; they will not be kings solemnly anointed, but will follow evil customs by reason of the corruption of the age. Massacring women and children, and killing one another, kings will enjoy the earth at the end of the Kali Age (Parasher, 1991, p. 243).
The use of the future tense may have been intended to suggest a warning of things to come and it may be a response to what has been called a “principled forgetfulness.” These early Indian texts gave little importance to recording historical events that were accompanied by violence and this may be a response to what has been called a “principled forgetfulness.” The term Yavana here refers to the early Greeks, but it became a general label for all outsiders who invaded the subcontinent from the west, and was often employed when traditional ideologues wished to emphasize that normal rules of the social, ethical, and moral order had been upset by people alien to their values. In this regard if we think of national pride so called Asoka Stambha then it fit to that context. It has nothing relating to Buddhism it’s four headed structure of Lion is clearly showing a Greek Art and show piece of victory over India and Buddhist India by hiding face on the mask of Buddhist religion.
4. Asoka Stambha is the Missing altars of Alexander[By Prof Ranjit Pal- He is a life member of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institution, Pune, and the Indian Society for Greek and Roman Studies, Bareilly. ]:- According to him //
The Englishman Thomas Coryat who came to Delhi in 1616 was one of the first westerners to notice the Asokan pillars after the middle ages. Coryat was greatly impressed by the superbly polished forty feet high monolithic column and presumed that it must have been erected by Alexander the Great ‘in token of his victorie’ over Porus. In Coryat’s time the script of the inscriptions in the pillar was undeciphered but today, thanks to Prinsep, we know that it contains an inscription of Asoka; yet there is more to it than meets the eye. From Asoka’s own inscription it is almost certain that some of his pillars were not erected by him. . Arrian wrote, After the mutiny at Hyphasis Alexander gave up his plans to march further east and to commemorate his presence in India erected twelve massive altars of dressed stone as a thanksgiving to the deities who had blessed his success“He then divided the army into brigades, which he ordered to prepare twelve altars to equal in height the highest military towers, and to exceed them in point of breadth, to serve as thank offerings to the gods who had led him so far as a conqueror, and also as a memorial of his own labours. When the altars had been constructed, he offered sacrifice upon them with the customary rites, and celebrated a gymnastic and equestrian contest.”
From his study of Buddhist art, Alfred Foucher, one of the greatest commentators on Indian art, raised many questions that apparently had no precise answer. Foucher was surprised to find that the symbols of Buddhism like the lion, the lotus etc. had no antecedents in the art of Eastern India where one must expect them. G. Tucci pointed out that even the Stupa is of west Asian origin. Similar views were held by A. Coomaraswamy. “Mahalake hi vijitam” (‘Vast is my empire’), proclaimed Ashoka. There can be little doubt that the Delhi-Topra pillar i[xxx] which now bears Asoka’s seventh edict is in fact one of the missing altars of Alexander the Great ii[xxxi]. Alexander lives in India. At least one of the Asokan Pillars was a re-inscribed altar of Alexander (Scholia, vol.15, p.78-101). Alexander’s legacy should be sought not only in the Seleucid Empire or the culture of Alexandria but also in the clear Greek imprint on Buddhist religion and art. The rise of Asoka/Diodotus and the resurgence in Indian culture in the 4th century B.C. were largely due to Alexander’s tryst with India.
5. There is no proof that all Edicts are belong to Asoka:-
There are three types of inscriptions. (a) Major Rock Edicts(b) Minor Rock Edicts and (c) pillar edicts
Now the Debate is that Pillar edicts and Major edicts are said to be the same period. But minor edicts are not considered to be same period. And there are many disputes on the age, nature of edicts.
Now the Aramic and Greek edicts are not considered to be part of the Major edicts and also there is no proof that these edicts are by Ashoka. How one can say that the edicts by Ashoka are proven.
Osmund Bopearachchi is an historian and numismatist who has been specializing in the coinage of the Indo-Greek and Greco-Bactrian kingdoms. Originally from Sri Lanka, he finished his studies in France is Director of Research at the French National Centre for Scientific Research (C.N.R.S.-e.N.S. Paris) and also visiting professor of Central Asian and South-Asian archaeology and art history and member of the Doctoral School VI of the Paris IV-Sorbonne University. He holds a B.A. from the University of Kelaniya (Sri Lanka), and B.A. honors, (M.A.), M.Phil., Ph.D. from the Paris I-Sorbonne University, and a Higher Doctorate (Habilitation) from the Paris IV-Sorbonne University. believes that
1. Demetrius received the title of “King of India” following his victories south of the Hindu Kush. He was also given, though perhaps only posthumously, the title ανικητος (“Anicetos”, lit. Invincible) a cult title of Heracles, which Alexander had assumed; the later Indo-Greek kings Lysias, Philoxenus, and Artemidorus also took it Finally, Demetrius may have been the founder of a newly discovered Greek Era, starting in 186/5 BC.
2. Historian Romila Thaper wonders why there are no edicts at his so-called capital if it was modern Patna . What she state that there are no relics of even Chandragupta or the Nandas at modern Patna.
3. Eminent Historian Roychaudhari also wonders why the Greek accounts are silent on Buddhism.
4. Romila Thapar suggests that Antiochus could have been his half-brother.
5. It turns out that Ashoka’s history matches that of Diodotus-I (Devadatta/ Devanampiya) almost line by line.
6. A.K. Narain and others maintain that Diodotus proclaimed himself as king by about 256 BC.
According to Wheeler, the first Edicts were inscribed ‘in and after 257BC’.
7. The Kandahar Edict clearly shows Ashoka as the master of Arachosia, whereas the numerous coins of Diodotus-I found from this area indicate that Diodotus was the sovereign of this region.
8. Prof Meena Talim rightly says that the novel idea of King Asoka to communicate with people by inscribing the edicts . Truly speaking, it was the original idea of the King Darious of Persia of 6th century BC to write the edicts for the welfare of the people .King Darious used to inscribe proclamations on stone slabs and install them at croweded places, where people could read them. It is amazing that King Asoka carried out the same idea but for a different purpose.
9. Ashoka was the same as Diodotus-I. Significantly whereas Ashoka has many inscriptions and No coins, Diodotus-I has many coins but no inscriptions which clearly shows that they complement one another. The coins of Ashoka are one of the best in the world. Either they are the same or honeymoon collaboration.
10. Ashoka died exactly when Diodotus died;
11. The great Indologist F. W. Thomas noted that in his Edicts Ashoka did not mention Diodotus Theos who should have been his neighbor. It is difficult to imagine that the man whose religious overtures won the heart of nearly the entire civilized world failed to impress upon his god-like neighbor .
12. Ashoka does not mention Iran also in his Edicts; the nearest foreign king that he mentions being Antiochus. This may indicate that the Syrian King stationed at Seleucia near Babylon was indeed his neighbor .
13. Ashoka does not refer to Devadatta because he was Devadatta himself.
( Sr.No4 to 12 by Prof. Ranjit Pal)
14. “When the thera (elder) Moggaliputta, the illuminator of the religion of the Conqueror (Ashoka), had brought the (third) council to an end… he sent forth theras, one here and one there: …and to Aparantaka (the “Western countries” corresponding to Gujarat and Sindh) he sent the Greek (Yona) named Dhammarakkhita… and the thera Maharakkhita he sent into the country of the Yona”. (Mahavamsa XII).
15. The same Mahavamsa refer to Greek (Yona) named Dhammarakkhita… and the thera Maharakkhita but say nothing about Kalinga war, rather clearly saying Asokan conversion is due to a Buddhist monk of early age. [Mahavamasa (Great Chronicle), Ashoka was converted to Buddhism by Nigrodha, a boy monk]
16. Junagadh Inscription of Rudradamana already says about Asoka’s treacherousness and first time in Indian History Asoka is the Officially proved treacher.
There are two places In the so called Edict of Asoka telling about Kalinga . First one is in Shahbazgarhi in Modern Pakistan and another is in Old Kandahar founded in 1963.
1. First one at Shabazgarhi not clearly mentioning Kalinga Vijaya and only Kalinga name appear once and that also for religion of Kalinga[adhuna langheshu kalingamahi tibbo dhamma].
2. Second one found in Old Kandahar in 1963 and containing 22 sentences and it is a mixture of Rock Edict XII and XIII. Suspicion of this is to be say as a edict is :-
(i) It was written on a wall of a house in its inner part. In this regard carbon dating is required to know on which period it was written and is there is any forgery on this account or not.
(ii) If the writer is Asoka a Indian King not Diodotus a Yavana King they why it was written out side of Asokan empire?
(iii) Why such a small sized rock edict was installed outside of Asokan empire when rock edict is always for public reading, then what is the intention of its hiding in a house wall? It is for whom to read? What is its authenticity?
(iv) Is it the Asoka+ Yavana honeymoon recorded by a devotee who fear that if it is known to public then truth of Killing people by Yavanas may open ?
All these things are yet to be answered.
Asoka’s 13th Edict Echoes Nebuchadrezzar’s Inscription
The thirteenth edict of Asoka occupies a special place for the poignancy of its diction. The humane tone of remorse and the account of the subsequent change of heart of the Emperor after victory in the bloody battle of Kalinga sounds very authentic and moving. One cannot but contrast it with the imperial and swaggering style of Darius’ edicts. But as pointed out by Bhattacharya i[vi] the reasons for which he fought the battle in the eighth year of his reign are not clear. Kalinga was most probably not modern Orissa ii[vii] as none of the Orissa edicts mention the war in which one hundred thousand men were killed and fifty thousand taken away as captives. From archaeological data regarding urbanism in the third century BC it can be said that deporting fifty thousand people (to Patna?) would have been an impossible task. Even if one considers a different geographical location, war on such a scale can safely be ruled out as there is no indication from other sources. There can be little doubt regarding victory in a war and the remorse and change of heart of the emperor but the propagandist element in the edict cannot be missed. Asoka is clearly emulating Nebuchadrezzar who also narrated his victory in his eighth year in which many thousands were killed and many more deported. In fact, as we know from the stories of the Old Testament Nebuchadrezzar was one of the greatest heroes whose fame had reached the farthest corners of the ancient world. D. J. Wiseman writes iii[viii] [Prof Ranjit Pal]
Again when we come to Kalingan front then it will be clear that either Asoka is the same Diodotus I or Honeymoon Joint collaboration. Following point is to be taken as the proof:-
1. An Indian King can not engaged in Mass Killings of Brahmins in any way and mass killing of Naked Sadhus[Jain Monks (Shramanas)] by Asoka at least can not be possible because his Grand Father Chandra Gupta is a devoted Jain.
2. XIII Rock Edict saying about Conquering and unconquered land that mean the person saying this is a Yavana because:-
(i) We know Alexander failed to advance towards India due to Gangridae Kalinga for its warrior and Elephant, therefore it was his dream became true through Diodotus I when Yavana got Magadha King Asoka as his counterpart as Jarasandha of Magadha also have the same dream but unsuccessful in Mahabharata period.
(ii) Kalinga Magadha conflict starts from Nanda Kingdom and Kalinga Jina taken away by Nanda King is clearly depicted by Mahameghavahana in his famous Hathi Gumpha Inscription.
(iii) At the time of revolt against Nanda empire history is salient about Kalinga that proves its active participation to wipe out Nanda.
(iv) After Nanda of Magadha ‘s unsuccessful attack on Kalinga Nanda must know the consequences, that’s why digging Canal for Kalinga for massive irrigation project is also to appease Kalinga. What I think the King already feel the wrong he does. At last Nanda empire lost its last breath through Kautilya and Chandragupta.
(v) When Mahameghavahana Kaharavela start his attack towards north India he does not sound a word against Magadha and specially Maurya rather celebrating victory by sending back Yavanas from whole of India [Bharatavarsa] in fear [Yavanaraja yachhati palllavara—Yavana king fled in fear without weighing a single war].
(vi) Kharavela build Mahavijaya Prasadam for celebrating victory over Yavanas and send them back from India [Bharatavarsa].
(vii) Bharata Varsa never used by Asoka or Diodotus I in any of their Edict.
(viii) Kharavela using sympathetically term for Mauryan kingdom for not using Jainism properly by early Mauryan Magadha Empire which was revived by Mahameghabahana.
(ix) After the Magadha King surrender on the feet of Kharavela with Kalinga Jina ,Kharavela pardon them and not sounding any aggressiveness against Magadha.
In last there is no way to say it was Kalinga Magadha war of XIII Rock Edict and the Yavana King hiding his face of Dhamma mask to rule over India and the intention of Yavana clearly depicted in Matsya Purana and when we correlate it with Mahameghabahana celebrating point against Yavanas in Kalingan expedition towards the north ,it is clearly a Kalinga-Yavana conflict and at last Kalinga shows its power and it is a betoken to Yavana history and historian those who were saying that they are great. Those who fled away in fear or who give the challenge to the invader to fled away is Great is a open debate ,and neither surrender of false conqueror is great nor coward’s jackal’s flee are great .
Whom we preach now as National , all are salutation to Invaders. 1.National Anthem (Jana Gana Mana Adhinayaka Jaya hei, Bharata Bhagya Bidhata ///Ohh Yavanas you are our masters you are great because you kill us plunder us that’s why salutation, salutation and salutation ). 2.Asoka Chakra in National Flag – Salutation to Butchering of Indians on the religious mask face of Buddha and sell this land to Invader Yavanas to rule over Buddhist India . 3. National Symbol Asoka Stambha- Alexander you are great because you are engaged in mass killing of Indians and establish your Empire in Asia from Europe and we love you because you preach violence and killing Indians is your Great non violence and we the Indians hate them who counter attack you. Ohh Alexander Kalingans are bad people they terrorise you . Great Kalingan’s Lion’s Roaring making you Jackals flee that’s why they don’t know non violence they are not saluting you, they are bad , but ohh Great Yavana Alexander salutation salutation salutation.